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At its heart, this is a management book for life. Light on spirituality but heavy on profundity, the book weaves the strands of wisdom from many ancient and modern philosophies into a beautiful tapestry of poetry and prose.
Leadership in Small Bites - 4.0 (Life in Small Bites - 'One Bite at a Time')
I enjoyed the personal stories that the author shared showing his humanity and his quest to rise above the challenges that made him a better person. Not many writers are so willing to share some of the most difficult — and compromising — moments of their lives with an unknown audience, but Yarbrough did. And he did it with class, using his own lessons learned to demonstrate a better way the reader can follow. The author wrote this book for his three children. He could have kept this treasure to himself or in the family, but he chose instead to share it with all of us. I appreciate his sincerity and learned at least one take-away in each chapter applicable to my own life.
I give Small Bites five 5 stars and highly recommend it to anyone with an open mind, a willingness to learn, and who enjoys wisdom in small, succinct bites. Josiah marked it as to-read May 09, Sarah B. Michaels added it May 23, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About James G. James G. Trivia About Leadership in Sma No trivia or quizzes yet.
To optimize vector control efforts, it is critical to monitor vector behaviour and insecticide resistance trends.
Leadership in Small Bites - 4.0 : Lessons in Leadership - One Bite at a Time
Mosquito species present, relative densities and biting times were monitored using human landing catches HLC conducted in eight houses, three times per year. HLC was conducted monthly in Lodja and Kapolowe during to assess seasonal dynamics. Laboratory data included resistance mechanism frequency and sporozoite rates.
Insecticide susceptibility testing was conducted with commonly used insecticides including deltamethrin and permethrin. Synergist bioassays were conducted with PBO to determine the role of oxidases in permethrin resistance. In Lodja, monthly Anopheles gambiae s. In Kapolowe, An. In all sites, An.
In Kapolowe, significant biting of both species started around , typically before householders use nets. Sporozoite rates were high, with a mean of 4. Anopheles gambiae were resistant to permethrin in six out of seven sites in In three sites, susceptibility to deltamethrin was observed despite high frequency permethrin resistance, indicating the presence of pyrethroid-specific resistance mechanisms.
The kdr F mutation in An. The finding of widespread resistance to permethrin in DRC is concerning and alternative insecticides should be evaluated. DRC has suffered through underdevelopment and conflict which has contributed to a UN human development index ranking of out of nations in [ 1 ]. Since then, significant progress has been made, with more than 40 million long-lasting insecticidal nets LLINs distributed between and through mass distribution campaigns, antenatal consultations, and at health clinics after completion of child vaccinations [ 4 ].
Data in central Africa, particularly DRC, is scarce despite insecticide-treated nets being the primary vector control intervention. In DRC, resistance testing from identified DDT resistance in 4 provinces and pyrethroid resistance in 3 provinces [ 10 ]. In light of the significant progress made in LLIN distribution and usage in DRC, it is important to closely monitor changes in insecticide resistance status in primary malaria vectors.watch
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Therefore, susceptibility testing was conducted in 4 provinces , , and 7 provinces. Malaria vector human biting rates, biting times, and species composition were also monitored periodically, with monthly longitudinal monitoring conducted in Lodja and Kapolowe in Monitoring of malaria vector biting times is particularly important when LLINs are the main vector control tool. Nets are most effective in areas where malaria vectors bite primarily indoors late at night when the majority of people are indoors and sleeping under nets.
However, changes in vector biting times have been recorded following mass distribution of LLINs [ 11 ]. In addition to susceptibility testing, monitoring of human biting Anopheles was conducted in and Although several of these sites are urban and peri-urban areas, the characteristics of collection areas are often quite similar to village settings, in that traditional housing materials are commonly used and suitable larval habitats can be found. The locations of entomological monitoring sentinel sites are shown in Fig.
Map of Democratic Republic of the Congo indicating ecological classification and the location of eight sentinel sites for entomological monitoring. Larval collections were made in each study site annually between and using larval dippers. Larval sampling was done in transient, sun-exposed puddles to maximize the likelihood of sampling Anopheles gambiae sensu lato s. Sampling was done from several larval sites to maximize genetic variability of An.
The number of larval sites sampled varied from three to ten per sentinel site per year, according to availability at the time of sampling. Larvae were subsequently transported to a field insectary for rearing. Insecticide susceptibility tests were conducted according to established WHO protocols using diagnostic concentrations of deltamethrin 0.
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It should be noted that in , WHO adopted 0. Every year, a total of An. After exposure, mosquitoes were transferred to clean holding tubes and provided with sugar solution. Synergist bioassays were conducted in to assess the involvement of metabolic resistance mechanisms in phenotypic resistance to permethrin. Bioassays were completed using WHO tubes lined with filter papers. The first step involved exposure of An. Mosquitoes were removed and exposed to papers treated with permethrin 0. A total of An. In parallel, tests were conducted with permethrin 0.
A total of 50 An. The difference in mortality following permethrin exposure with and without pre-exposure to PBO was interpreted as the resistance due to metabolic resistance mechanisms.
A limitation of this study is that no bioassays were done involving exposure only to synergist, to confirm that PBO did not induce lethal effects without exposure to pyrethroid. In , a small sub-sample of An. Human landing catches HLCs were done primarily to determine malaria vector species composition, the location of biting indoors or outdoors and times of biting.
However, for Lodja and Kapolowe sites, sampling was conducted monthly in by field based technicians that received additional training.
Field technicians conducted 8 HLCs four nights, two houses each night during each time period. Different houses were used for each night of trapping. Four collectors were deployed per house, two for the indoor position, and two for the outdoor position. The indoor position was located in the living area of the house while the outdoor position was within five meters of the front door.
Each collector sat on a stool and exposed his lower legs and feet for mosquitoes to land on. The collector monitored mosquitoes as they landed on his legs and captured them with small glass tubes that were sealed with cotton wool. Glass tubes were then placed in a sealed bag and labelled according to the hour of collection. The data was used to calculate the nightly human biting rate HBR based on eight person-nights of collection indoors and outdoors for each sampling period.
Hourly data was used to plot graphs showing biting time trends.
Identification of mosquitoes was done using the keys of Gillies and DeMeillon [ 14 , 15 ]. The mosquito collectors conducting HLCs were recruited from the community and provided with requisite training. There were no positive cases. A sub-sample of An. Kalemie and Katana were not included as sentinel sites in ; therefore no data is presented for these sites. Between 18 and An. No testing for VgscF was conducted with and samples. A sub-sample of individually stored An. A different sub-sample of An.